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Polycystic Ovary Syndrome can be the main cause of Metabolic Syndrome

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome can be the main cause of Metabolic Syndrome

The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is as high as 33% in women with Polycystic Overy Syndrome (PCOS)

  • Of women who have PCOS, as many as 30 % have impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and an additional 7.5 % tend to have diabetes. PCOS also conveys significant risks for diabetes and endometrial cancer.
  • Even among non-obese women with PCOS, 10.3% have IGT and 1.5% have diabetes. In long-term follow-up, 16% of women who had been treated for PCOS 20–30 years earlier had developed diabetes by the age of menopause.

Many patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) also have features of the metabolic syndrome, including insulin resistance, obesity, and dyslipidemia, suggesting an increased risk for cardiovascular disease.

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome can be the main cause of Metabolic Syndrome

The risk factors for metabolic syndrome include central obesity, hypertension, atherogenic dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. Thus, metabolic syndrome affects 33% of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

The exact cause of PCOS is unknown. Early diagnosis and treatment along with weight loss may reduce the risk of long-term complications such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal disorder that is common among women of reproductive age and affects 10–18% of women.

Women with PCOS may have infrequent or prolonged menstrual periods or excess male hormone (androgen) levels. The ovaries may develop numerous small collections of fluid (follicles) and fail to regularly release eggs.

Hence, it is the need of the hour for women with PCOS to take good care of themselves and keep these fatal conditions at bay.

Madhuri Burande Laha, (Consultant, Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Motherhood Hospital, Kharadi, Pune) said, “Binge eating, can increase insulin secretion and insulin resistance. Thus, the safest and cheapest therapy that has shown benefit both in diabetes and PCOS is weight loss by lifestyle modifications. In obese women with PCOS, incorporating carbohydrates with a low glycaemic index (GI) has demonstrated considerable improvement in insulin sensitivity."

She further said, "moreover, medical therapies for insulin resistance are available and can improve not only glucose control but also the reproductive abnormalities associated with PCOS. Metformin increases ovulation rapidly (as early as 3 months), modestly and without weight loss. It has also improved spontaneous pregnancy rates.”

Patients with diabetes and a BMI> 35 kg/m2, bariatric surgery may also be an appropriate intervention. Weight loss after bariatric surgery also leads to improvements in insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia.

“Likewise, 150 minutes of exercise per week including 90 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity, resulting in a net loss of 7 % body weight and a 58 % reduction in the progression to diabetes. Reduced body weight is associated with a decrease in metabolically active visceral fat, which in turn leads to decreased insulin resistance and an optimized lipid profile and may have psychological benefits such as reduced anxiety and depression, ” stated Dr. Madhuri.

Recommended screening for metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome can be the main cause of Metabolic Syndrome

  • Weight, BMI, Waist circumference to be measured at every visit. Check BP for women with BMI < 25 once in a year and for women with BMI >25 at every visit.
  • Do a lipid profile for women with normal profile every 2 years.
  • For women who have an abnormal profile or excess weight- do a lipid profile annually.
  • 75 gm OGTT to be done in all women every 2 years, whereas in women with added risk factors to be done once every year.

What is Polycystic Ovary Syndrome?

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) condition imbalances hormones level in women's bodies.

in PCOS women's bodies produce high amounts of male hormones. This hormone imbalance causes women to skip menstrual periods and makes it harder to get pregnant.

Symptoms of PCOS

Irregular periods
Heavy bleeding.
Unwanted hair growth
Weight gain/obesity
Male-pattern baldness
Darkening of the skin

Symptoms of Metabolic syndrome

Excess body fat around the waist, high blood sugar, blood pressure, abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels.

Metabolic syndrome increases your risk of heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes.

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